Geary Act and Alpines (band)

The Geary Act was a United States law that extended the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 by adding onerous new requirements. It was written by California Congressman Thomas J. Geary and was passed by Congress on 01892-05-05-0000May 5, 1892.

The law required all Chinese residents of the United States to carry a resident permit, a sort of internal passport. Failure to carry the permit at all times was punishable by deportation or a year of hard labor. In addition, Chinese were not allowed to bear witness in court, and could not receive bail in habeas corpus proceedings.

The Geary Act was challenged in the courts but was upheld by the United States Supreme Court in an opinion by Justice Horace Gray, Fong Yue Ting v. United States, 149 U.S. 698, 13 S. Ct. 1016. 37 L.Ed. 905 (1893), Justices David Josiah Brewer, Stephen J. Field, and Chief Justice Melville Fuller dissenting.

Contents 1 Background 2 The Act 3 Reaction 4 See also 5 References

§Background

Chinese immigrants came to the U.S. in large numbers during the California Gold Rush and in the 1860s when the Central Pacific Railroad recruited labor to build its portion of the Transcontinental Railroad. Once gold became more scarce and labor more competitive, white hostility to the Chinese (as well as other foreign laborers) intensified in the West. This hostility eventually led to the passage of anti-Chinese immigration laws, such as the Page Act of 1875 and the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. The Act excluded Chinese "skilled and unskilled laborers and Chinese employed in mining" from entering the country for ten years under penalty of imprisonment and deportation, as well as denying U.S. citizenship to Chinese immigrants. The Act effectively began immigration enforcement at the border because prior to the passage of the Page Act and Chinese Exclusion Act, there existed no trained officials and interpreters, nor the bureaucratic machinery with which to enforce immigration restriction laws or an effort to document and track the movements and familial relationships of immigrants. These types of policies implemented in the Page and Chinese Exclusion Acts have largely been seen as due to what Erika Lee depicts as Government officials’ deep “suspicion Chinese were attempting to enter the country under fraudulent pretenses". §The Act

The original Exclusion Act of 1882 only excluded Chinese laborers for a period of 10 years. Following the Exclusion Act of 1882 and other amendments, such as the documentary requirement changing 1884 amendment, efforts were sought to crack down on illegal entry and residence of Chinese in the U.S. When the 1882 Act expired in 1892, Californian Democratic Senator Thomas Geary sponsored the Act’s renewal and so the extension provision was named after him.

The Geary Act, besides renewing the exclusion of Chinese laborers for another 10 years, also outlined provisions that required Chinese already in the U.S. to possess “certificates of residence” (as well as “certificates of identity” after the McCreary amendment was added) that served as proof that they entered the U.S. legally and had the right to remain in the country. The certificates of residence contained the name, age, local residence, occupation, and photograph of the applicant. The act placed the burden of proof of their right to be in the U.S. on the Chinese themselves, denied bail to Chinese in habeas corpus proceedings, made it the duty of all Chinese laborers in the U.S. to apply within one year for a certificate of residence, with a duplicate kept in the office of the Collector of Internal Revenue, and suitable penalties were prescribed for any falsification of certificates. Another of the Act’s provisions required two white witnesses to testify to a Chinese person’s immigration status. If any Chinese laborer within the United States without this certificate of residence was “deemed and adjudged to be unlawfully in the United States”, they could be arrested and forced to do hard labor, and be deported after a year. This was the first time ever illegal immigration to the U.S. was made punishable by such a harsh degree.

Even though this Act seems to have granted no concessions to Chinese immigrants whatsoever, historians such as Elmer Clarence Sandmeyer have noted that many Californians were disappointed that the Act did not achieve total exclusion. Although the Act stated that these certificates – as well as similar “certificates of identity” later created by the then newly formed Bureau of Immigration to document all Chinese who were actually exempt from the Exclusion and subsequent Geary Acts (for example merchants, teachers, travelers, and students) – were supposed to serve as “indubitable proof of legal entry”, the documents did not function to protect legal immigrants and residents from government harassment. As Erika Lee describes, because the Act required all Chinese to possess the certificates, the entire Chinese community in the U.S. – including immigrants and residents who were supposed to be exempt from the exclusionary laws – was exposed to the same level of constraint and inquiry governing Chinese laborers. The motivation behind this unprecedented level of inquiry, says Lee, was quite bluntly due to the prejudiced view that it was, as Senator Geary himself stated, “impossible to identify Chinaman ”. No other immigrant group were required to hold documents proving their lawful residence until 1928, when ‘immigrant identification cards’ were first issued to any new immigrant arriving for permanent residence (these were replaced by green cards, officially alien registration receipt cards, after 1940), a fact that Lee calls “gatekeeping” and sees as rooted in “a western American desire to sustain white supremacy in a multiracial West”. §Reaction

Within a few months of the implementing the Act, Chinese in the U.S. began organizing to resist the enforcement of the law. The heads of the Six Companies, the San Francisco branch of The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, proclaimed that the Chinese in the U.S. ought not register, but rather contribute to a fund for hiring of lawyers to fight the law on the ground of unconstitutionality. The effort was overwhelmingly successful (only 3,169 of the estimated 110,000 Chinese in the country had registered by the April 1893 deadline), yet newspaper coverage of the protest reported Chinese as being slaves to doing whatever The Six Companies told them to do.

Resistance came from outside the West of the country as well. The Chinese Equal Rights League in New York and Brooklyn pleaded that its members to help their fellow countrymen, and enrolled some 150 English-speaking Chinese merchants and professionals in New York. Its leaders argued that by making Chinese immigrants pay the “illegal costs and expenses” of enforcing the law, the bill imposed taxation without representation. The Chinese Equal Rights League was able to gain much support from whites on the East Coast, as on September 22, 1892, more than one thousand U.S. citizens joined some two hundred Chinese merchants and laborers at Cooper Union in Manhattan to protest the Geary Act.

Several Chinese that refused to register for their certificate of residence brought suit that, upon appeal, was brought before the Supreme Court in Fong Yue Ting v. United States. Among some of the questions brought before the Court was whether the Act violated the 1868 Burlingame Treaty with China, whether hard labor and deportation constituted cruel and unusual punishment and thus violated the Eighth Amendment, whether the Act violated Fifth and Sixth Amendments protections by permitting imprisonment with hard labor without prior indictment or jury trial, whether the act violated the Fourteenth Amendment’s prohibition against the taking of property or liberty without due process, among other issues. The Court’s 5 to 3 decision, delivered by Justice Horace Gray, ruled that the if the U.S. as a sovereign nation had the power to exclude any person or any race it wished, it also must be able to deport any person or race it wished, and thus upheld the Geary Act.

Upon hearing the decision, the Chinese Consulate, the Six Companies, and many Chinese in the U.S. stated that they refused to pay their way back to China if deported, thus leaving the U.S. government financially responsible. The Chinese Government also informed the U.S. that if it acted on the law, it would end all relations – diplomatic and economic – with the U.S. Additionally, since Congress did not write any provisions granting money to pay for, and thus enforce, deportations, the Act as was rendered moot until it was amended through the McCreary amendment (named after the senator who proposed it) to appease the Chinese government, but did so only by providing an additional six months for Chinese to register for the residency certificates. Even with the amendment, Congress only appropriated several hundred thousand dollars to the law’s enforcement. §See also Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 Chinese Immigration Act of 1885 - Canada The Chinese Immigration Act, 1923 - Canada Magnuson Act Immigration and Nationality Services Act of 1965 Burlingame Treaty Scott Act (1888) §

Alpines (band) and Geary Act

Alpines is a UK duo based in Kingston upon Thames in South London, made up of Bob Matthews (guitar and production) and Catherine Pockson (pianist, singer/songwriter). Since forming in 2010 the band has toured and supported The Naked and Famous, Emeli Sande and Florence + The Machine at the Alexandra Palace on 10 March 2012. In 2011 Alpines signed a deal with EMI Music Publishing (now Sony/ATV). Alpines release their debut album "Oasis" on 26 May 2014 on their own label, Untrue Records.

Contents 1 Media 2 Songwriting and collaborations 3 Discography 3.1 Studio Albums 3.2 EPs 3.3 Singles 4 References 5 External links

§Media

Their track "Drive" was used by Rankin in a video for fashion designer Hannah Marshall in 2011. A clip of Alpines' track "Saviour" was used in an advert for the BBC Three programme Bringing Up Britain in March 2011. In 2011, their track "Cocoon" was used during an episode of the US crime series CSI, and "Fossilised" was used in another CSI episode in 2012. Their song "Empire" which was released as a video in May 2012 was used by Sky Atlantic for the trailer of the new series of Boardwalk Empire season 3 Autumn 2012 and by ESPN for US Barclays Center Classic in November 2012.

In August 2012, their song "Got Me Wrong" from their Early Hours EP was featured in All Saints Autumn/Winter Fashion Collection TV Campaign in which Catherine and Bob also appeared. All Saints have issued Alpines Basement session videos of "Got Me Wrong" and "Chances". Alpines have continued their association with Rankin whose Hunger TV Company has produced their videos of "Got Me Wrong" and "Chances" including a studio piano performance of "Chances".

On 18 January 2013, Vogue on Line introduced Alpines release of their single "Lights" and a mini film video of Lights featuring Emily Berrington and Ben Lloyd-Hughes directed by Ryan Hope. In September 2013, Alpines "Cocoon" was used in a short film introducing Eudon Choi's fashion collection for River Island Design Forum. In autumn 2014, "Tidal Wave" was featured in the TV and film advert "Sound with Power" for Mercedes. "Empire" was used by Starz Entertainment in the promotion of the Starz Denver Film Festival in November 2013 and for the promotion of original TV and films showing on Starz TV in the USA during the first quarter of 2014. On 5 June 2014 Alpines performed at the Paul Smith Beak Street Store London and in July took part in his photo shoot for Madame Figaro "Portfolio Jeunes Talents". In August 2014 Abercrombie & Fitch featured " No Other Lover" in their stores. Alpines video of "Zero" was premiered on 18 August 2014 in Hunger Magazine §Songwriting and collaborations

Alpines have written the song "Tidal Wave" with Sub Focus. The record, which features Catherine singing, was released by Sub Focus on Mercury on 4 November 2012, and reached No. 12 in the BBC Official Singles Chart on 12 November 2012. "Tidal Wave" is also a track on Sub Focus LP "Torus" released on 30 September 2013. SubFocus and Alpines were awarded a silver disc for Tidal Wave by the British Recorded Music Industry (BPI) on 14 February 2014. Catherine also sang on The Maccabees' LP Given to the Wild on the track "Unknow" released 9 January 2012 and sang it with them at the Little Noise Sessions in November 2012 which was shown by Channel 4 on 20 December 2012.

Catherine has co-written and sung "Fall From Grace" which is on Maya Jane Coles' debut album "Comfort" released on 1 July 2013. Alpines previously collaborated with Maya Jane Coles on their version of "Why" released 20 March 2012, and she also produced a remix of Alpines "Cocoon" under her Nocturnal Sunshine name which was released by Alpines on 22 August 2011. Alpines co-wrote the song "The Key" which Catherine sang on Creep's album "Echoes" which was released on 12 November 2013.

In addition to writing and producing their own music, Alpines have issued their own remixes of other artists including Lana Del Rey's "Blue Jeans" and Emile Sande's "Heaven". In 2011 Alpines also collaborated with other producers on some of their songs including "Tremors" with producer trio Dark Sky and "Gold" with Craze and Hoax.

Oasis studio album

Alpines wrote and produced all the tracks on the album with contributions from MNEK on "Blind" and "Sunset" and Vince Kidd on "Zero". The album artwork photos taken by Cyrus Mahboubian will be on display at the opening of the De Re Art Gallery Hollywood from 16 May 2014, and the album will be sound tracking the exhibition of modern art through the summer. In Summer 2014 Alpines toured the UK to promote the album. §Discography §Studio Albums §EPs §Singles

Drive Released: 28 March 2011 Label: Polydor Recordings Format: Download, vinyl

Cocoon Released: 22 August 2011 Label: Polydor Recordings Format: Download, vinyl

Empire Released: 11 June 2012 Label: Untrue Records Format: Download, vinyl

Lights Released 20 January 2013 Label: Untrue Records Format: Download

Oasis Released: 20 January 2014 Label: Untrue Records Format: Download

No Other Lover Released: April/May 2014 Label: Untrue Records Format: Download

Zero Released: August 2014 Label: Untrue Records Format: Download §
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