Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders (Scouts-in-Exile) and Ticke

of leave The Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders (Организация Российских Юных Разведчиков, abbreviated as ORYuR/ОРЮР, registered in the United States as St. George's Pathfinders of America) is one of the two large Russian Scouting in Exile movements. This organization has historically drawn the conservative side of the spectrum of Russians in exile.

Contents 1 History 1.1 Russian Scouting in exile 1917-1945 1.2 DP-Scouts and the founding of ORYuR 1.3 ORYuR today 2 See also 3 References

§History §Russian Scouting in exile 1917-1945

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the organization Русский Скаут went into exile, and continued in many countries where fleeing White Russian émigrés settled, establishing groups in France, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Turkey, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Finland, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Belgium, Argentina, Chile, Canada, Australia, United States and for a short time also in the Netherlands and Surinam. A much larger mass of Russian Scouts moved through Vladivostok to the east into Manchuria and south into China and Hong Kong. An ORYuR Scout handbook

The most important leader of Russian Scouting in exile was Oleg Pantyukhov. Oleg Pantyukhov, Chief Scout of Russia, first went to Turkey and resided later in France and then moved to the United States, where large troops of Russian Scouts were established in cities such as San Francisco, Burlingame, California, Los Angeles, etc. He returned to Nice, France where he died. He served as Chief Scout of N.O.R.S. until his death on October 25, 1973 and was involved in Russian Scouting since 1908/1909.

National Organization of Russian Scouts was recognized as a Member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, in exile, from 1922 to 1945. The Headquarters was first in Constantinople, later in Brussels and Belgrade. §DP-Scouts and the founding of ORYuR

After World War II Russian Scout and Guide troops were founded in Displaced Persons camps in i.e. in Austria and West Germany. In Monchehof Displaced Persons Camp the Russian Scouts provided postal delivery and issued Scout stamps. So from November 14 to November 15, 1945 a Conference of Russian DP-Scout leaders took place in Munich and the Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders (ORYuR) was founded. Among the founders were Boris Borisovitsch Martino. Oleg Pantyukhov was appointed to the Chief Scout of the Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders and so he was at this time the Chief Scout of both Russian Scouts-in-exile associations. He tried to unite the associations, but it failed and so he resigned as Chief Scout from ORYuR in 1957. As neither organization was created ex nihilo, they may both be considered legitimate successors to the Русский Скаут heritage.

ORYuR became a member of the Displaced Persons Scout Division from 1947 to 1950. §ORYuR today A parade at the 2004 jamboree

There are groups of this Scout association in Germany, Argentina, the United States and other countries in Europe, the Americas and Australia.

In Germany the name "Russische St. Georgs-Pfadfinder" (Russian St. George's Scouts) is sometimes used.

Together with N.O.R.S. ORYuR helped to restart Scouting in Russia and other parts of the former USSR. So there are today groups of ORYuR in Russia and Lithuania. §See also Scouting in Russia National Organization of Russian Scouts (Scouts-in-Exile) (НОРС) National Association of Russian Explorers (НОРР) Orthodox Organization of Russian Pathfinders (ПОРР) §

Ticket of leave and Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders (Scouts-in-Exile)

A ticket of leave was a document of parole issued to convicts who had shown they could now be trusted with some freedoms. Originally the ticket was issued in Britain and later adopted by the United States, Canada and Ireland.

Contents 1 Britain 1.1 Australian convicts 1.2 British military 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

§Britain §Australian convicts

The ticket system was first introduced by Governor Philip Gidley King in 1801. It officially began in 1853 when prisoners transported from the United Kingdom to Australia, and subsequently other colonies, who had served a period of probation—and shown by their good behaviour that they could be allowed certain freedoms—were awarded the ticket of leave. Once granted, a convict was permitted to seek employment within a specified district, but could not leave the district without the permission of the government or the district's resident magistrate. Each change of employer or district was recorded on the ticket.The convicts had to do jobs to get money to get a ticket of leave.

Originally the ticket of leave was given without any relation to the period of the sentence being served. Starting in 1811, a concept of serving some term in prison first was established; and in 1821 specific terms were added to the length of the prisoners sentence that must be first served before a ticket was to be allowed. These were 4 years served for a 7-year sentence, 6 years of a 14-year sentence, with a life sentence meaning that 8 years must be served before the "ticket" could be considered. Once the full original sentence had been served a 'certificate of freedom' would be issued upon application.

Ticket-of-leave men were permitted to marry, or to bring their families from Britain, and to acquire property, but they were not permitted to carry firearms or board a ship, and they were often restricted to a specific district stipulated on the ticket. They were often required to repay the cost of their passage to the colony.

A convict who observed the conditions of his ticket-of-leave until the completion of one half of his sentence was entitled to a conditional pardon, which removed all restrictions except the right to leave the colony. Convicts who did not observe the conditions of their ticket could be arrested without warrant, tried without recourse to the Supreme Court, and would forfeit their property.

The ticket of leave had to be renewed annually, and those with one had to attend muster and church services. NSW Colonial Government - Convict Ticket of Leave Passport

The ticket itself was a highly detailed document, listing the place and year the convict was tried, the name of the ship in which he or she was transported, and the length of the sentence. There was also a detailed physical description of the convict, along with year of birth, former occupation and "native place".

Tickets comprise two components, the ticket proper was issued to the person named and it was mandatory for the person to carry that document on their person at all times. The second component was the 'butt', this was the official copy and was kept by the Government on file. The tickets proper are quite rare as they were in constant use by the owner, the 'butts' are still retained in archive records and are available for researchers. §British military

In the Second World War the "ticket of leave" was a colloquial name given to the papers allowing a soldier to take leave from active service. §See also Certificate of Freedom §
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