Talluza and Tampering (crime)

Talluza (Arabic: طلوزه‎) is a Palestinian village in the Nablus Governorate in the northern West Bank, located 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) northeast of Nablus. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) census, it had a population of 2,375 in 2007.

Contents 1 History 2 Geography 3 Demographics 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External links

History

Talluza has been identified as the Samaritan town of Tira Luzeh where the high priest Baba Rabba erected a synagogue in the 4th century CE. The Talmud mentions the village as "Turluzeh" where the Romans burnt the sacred Hebrew scrolls. According to Albright, the name "Tur-Luzeh" (Tûr Lôzah) was Aramaic for "almond mountain." In 1941 a Greek inscription was found bearing the name of "Yosef Ben Ya'akov Zechariah," a Samaritan from the 4th–5th centuries. Later, in 1985 a rock-hewn Samaritan burial cave containing three coffins for members of the Samaritan Ptolemayos family was excavated. A handful of glass beads and an oil lamp were also found in the excavation. Inside the village is the maqam ("holy tomb") of Nabi Harun ("the Prophet Aaron") according to local tradition. A columbarium and Byzantine ceramics have been found in the village.

In 1322 the village was mentioned by Sir John Maundeville under the name of Deluze. In 1596 it appeared in Ottoman tax registers as "Talluza", a village in the nahiya of Jabal Sami in the liwa of Nablus. It had a population of 62 households, all Muslim. Taxes were paid on wheat, barley, summer crops, olive trees, occasional revenues, goats, beehives and a press for olives or grapes.

Edward Robinson visited Talluza, noting "The town is of some size, and tolerably well-built. We saw no remains of antiquity, except for a few sepulchral excavations and some cisterns." Robinson further remarked the house of the village's sheikh was "built round a small court in which cattle and horses were stabled."

Robinson suggested that Talluza might be ancient Tirzah (Latin form: Thersa), one of 31 Canaanite cities the Bible lists as having been conquered by Joshua; the modern Arabic name being a derivation of the ancient name by way of its Hebrew form, or possibly its original Canaanite form, whereby the r sound was replaced with a l. French explorer Victor Guérin also argued that Talluza was the site of ancient Thirza. Later Conder & Kitchener suggested that Tayasir was a more likely candidate, however, today Tell el-Farah (North), northeast of modern Nablus is generally accepted as the site of Tirzah.

When Guérin visited Talluza around 1870, he described it as being a large village with 1,000–1,200 inhabitants. He also noted that many of the houses were partially destroyed, and that there were ancient cisterns there. The Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine found in 1882 Talluza to be "A good-sized village, well-built, with a central Sheik's house. It stands on a knoll, with a very steep descent on the east, and the sides of the hill are covered with beautiful groves of olives....The women of the village go down to the fine springs on the east, about a mile distant, where there is a perennial supply of good water." Following the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, clan-based clashes between the inhabitants of Talluza and neighboring Asira ash-Shamaliya broke out in the wake of lax security in the area in the immediate aftermath of the revolution. Two to three men were killed in the fighting which began after Talluza's residents raided and seized Asira's cattle.

In a census conducted in 1922 by the British Mandate authorities, Talluza had an entirely Muslim population of 1,116, while in the 1931 census, Talluza (including the villages of Wadi al-Badhan and Wadi al-Far'a) had 323 occupied houses and an entirely Muslim population of 1,376. In 1945 the population was 1,830 while the total land area was 57,710 dunams, according to an official land and population survey. Of this, 16 dunams were allocated for citrus and bananas, 7,462 for plantations and irrigable land, 27,091 for cereals, while 41 dunams were classified as built-up areas.

Historically Talluza is linked to the village of Wadi al-Far'a since the latter village's lands were previously owned by the residents of Talluza, who used it for agricultural purposes. In the 1960s residents from Talluza settled in Wadi al-Far'a and established a separate village. In 1996 Wadi al-Far'a was officially separated from Talluza and was granted its own village council under the administration of the Tubas Governorate. Geography

Situated on the northern part of Mount Ebal along the slope of a plateau, Talluza has an average elevation of 545 meters (1,788 ft) above sea level. Its ancient village center is small and surrounded by relatively newer building structures. There are 50 cisterns in the village and the nearest source of water is 2.5 kilometers (1.6 mi) away from the village at Ein al-Beidan. Talluza is located off the road connecting Nablus with Asira ash-Shamaliya, and nearby localities the latter to the southwest, Yasid to the northwest, Far'a Camp to the northeast and Ein al-Beida to the southeast. Demographics

In 1961, during Jordanian rule, Talluza had a population of 1,667. In the 1997 census by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), its population was 2,002. Refugees accounted for at least 13.8% of the inhabitants. In the 2007 census, the population increased to 2,375 living in 429 households. The average household had between 5 to 6 members. The gender distribution was 50.8% male and 49.2% female.

The main families of the village are al-Hashaykeh (which includes al-Fares, al-Awaysah, al-Balateyyeh, al-Badawi, al-Abu Shehadeh), al-Darawsheh, al-Shanableh, as-Salahat, al-Janajreh and al-Barahmeh. Talluza contains three mosques and two separate secondary schools for boys and girls.

Tampering (crime) and Talluza

Tampering can refer to many forms of sabotage but the term is often used to mean intentional modification of products in a way that would make them harmful to the consumer. This threat has prompted manufacturers to make products that are either difficult to modify or at least difficult to modify without warning the consumer that the product has been tampered with. Since the person making the modification is typically long gone by the time the crime is discovered, many of these cases are never solved.

The crime is often linked with attempts to extort money from the manufacturer, and in many cases no contamination to a product ever takes place. Fraud is sometimes handled as a matter of civil law, but actual modification of products is almost always a matter of criminal law.

Contents 1 Examples 1.1 1982 Chicago Tylenol murders 1.2 Foreign objects 1.3 Fraudulent claims 2 References 3 External links

Examples 1982 Chicago Tylenol murders

Seven people died in this incident in the United States after taking medication that had been contaminated with cyanide. One man was later convicted of extortion, but no one was convicted of the murders. In 2009, the Federal Bureau of Investigation announced that it was re-examining the case. This event led to new requirements for tamper-evident seals on over-the-counter medications and changes in US tampering laws. Foreign objects

Tampering cases often involve foreign objects in food products. These cases often focus on determining whether the contamination occurred during manufacturing, either accidentally or intentionally, or whether the claims made by the complaining customers are real or fraudulent. Fraudulent claims

A famous case involving claims by customers that had tainted the products themselves was a series of claims in 1993 of needles found in Pepsi products. The manufacturer convincingly demonstrated that the contamination could not have taken place at the bottling plant, and several people were proven to have put the needles in themselves.
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