KGWN-DT2 and Mobile ad hoc network

KGWN-DT2 was the CBS-affiliated television station for Northern Colorado. It was a second digital subchannel of CBS outlet KGWN-TV that is owned by Frontier Radio Management. Over-the-air, it broadcast a 720p high definition digital signal on UHF channel 30.2 (or virtual channel 5.2 via PSIP) from KGWN's transmitter in unincorporated Laramie County, Wyoming (west of Cheyenne) between I-80/U.S. 30 and WY 225.

As a result, the broadcast radius of this signal did not cover Loveland and Greeley completely and areas just to the south were not able to pick up KGWN-DT2 at all. In order to increase its viewership base, the station was also seen in standard definition on Baja Broadband channel 5 and Comcast channel 14. The station maintained studios on East Mountain Avenue in downtown Fort Collins.

Although identified as a separate outlet in its own right, KGWN-DT2 was actually considered a semi-satellite of parent station KGWN in Cheyenne. It cleared all network programming as provided through its parent and syndicated shows although some programs are seen at a different time. This station also aired separate on-air identifications and local commercials. Although KGWN-DT2 maintained its own studios, master control and some internal operations were based out of KGWN's facility on East Lincolnway/East 14th Street/I-80 Business/U.S. 30 in Cheyenne.

KGWN has long claimed Northern Colorado as part of its primary coverage area even though the region is part of the Denver market, mainly because KGWN's transmitter is very close to the Colorado line. The main KGWN signal has been carried on cable systems in Fort Collins, Loveland, and Greeley for nearly five decades alongside Denver's CBS affiliate (originally KMGH-TV and now network owned-and-operated KCNC-TV). Additionally, many cable systems in Wyoming carry both KGWN and KCNC.

In May 2013, SagamoreHill Broadcasting reached a deal to sell KGWN to Yellowstone Holdings, a subsidiary of Frontier Radio Management. On November 4, 2013, Gray Television announced a deal to acquire Yellowstone Holdings for $23 million. KGWN-TV and KGWN-DT2 will be operated under a local marketing agreement by Gray until the closure of the deal. On December 19, 2013, KGWN announced that it would close "Northern Colorado 5," citing the inability to make the service "a viable long-term operation."As of December 2013, KGWN is being rebroadcast on channel 5.2. On December 1, 2014, 5.2 will carry NBC programming from Gray owned KCWY in Casper. The programming includes KCWY Newscasts with insertion of local Cheyenne market advertising.

Contents 1 Newscasts 1.1 News team 2 References 3 External links

§Newscasts Weeknight news open.

In 2005, KGWN established a Northern Colorado Bureau in Fort Collins. This provided another source of local news coverage in the area in addition to stations based in Denver. On September 15, 2008, this operation was expanded after KGWN-DT2 launched a weeknight 35 minute newscast in partnership with the Independent News Network (INN). Known as Northern Colorado 5 News at 10, the broadcast was recorded in advance from INN's production facility on Tremont Avenue in Davenport, Iowa. The news anchor, meteorologist, and sports anchor were provided by the centralized news operation and other personnel from INN filled-in as necessary.

At some point in time, production of Northern Colorado 5 News at 10 moved to a secondary set at KGWN's studios in Cheyenne and was no longer outsourced to the Independent News Network. Although the program was still taped in advance, it now featured anchor personnel from KGWN while three reporters based locally in Fort Collins contributed Northern Colorado-specific content to the broadcast.

In addition, there were weekday morning local weather cut-ins during CBS This Morning that were taped at KGWN's facility but with a focus on Northern Colorado. Weekday mornings from 6 to 6:30, the station simulcast local radio station KXBG (97.9 FM). Following at 6:30, there was a local weather forecast segment which repeated several times during the half hour. KGWN-DT2 did not simulcast any newscasts from its parent station. §News team

+ denotes personnel based in Fort Collins

Anchors Rylee DeGood - weeknight news anchor Chris Yates - weeknight meteorologist Kelly Ann Cicalese - weekday morning meteorologist Graham Hunter - weeknight sports anchor

Reporters + Spenser Tilus - sports and The Rams Sports Magazine Show host + Alex Ruiz - photographer + Alex Vitale §

Mobile ad hoc network and KGWN-DT2

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a continuously self-configuring, infrastructure-less network of mobile devices connected without wires. Ad hoc is Latin and means "for this purpose".

Each device in a MANET is free to move independently in any direction, and will therefore change its links to other devices frequently. Each must forward traffic unrelated to its own use, and therefore be a router. The primary challenge in building a MANET is equipping each device to continuously maintain the information required to properly route traffic. Such networks may operate by themselves or may be connected to the larger Internet. They may contain one or multiple and different transceivers between nodes. This results in a highly dynamic, autonomous topology.

MANETs are a kind of Wireless ad hoc network that usually has a routable networking environment on top of a Link Layer ad hoc network. MANETs consist of a peer-to-peer, self-forming, self-healing network in contrast to a mesh network has a central controller (to determine, optimize, and distribute the routing table). MANETs circa 2000-2015 typically communicate at radio frequencies (30 MHz - 5 GHz).

Multi-hop relays date back to at least 500 BC. The growth of laptops and 802.11/Wi-Fi wireless networking have made MANETs a popular research topic since the mid-1990s. Many academic papers evaluate protocols and their abilities, assuming varying degrees of mobility within a bounded space, usually with all nodes within a few hops of each other. Different protocols are then evaluated based on measures such as the packet drop rate, the overhead introduced by the routing protocol, end-to-end packet delays, network throughput, ability to scale, etc.

Contents 1 Types 2 Simulations 3 Data monitoring and mining 4 Security 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

§Types Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are used for communication between vehicles and roadside equipment. Intelligent vehicular ad hoc networks (InVANETs) are a kind of artificial intelligence that helps vehicles to behave in intelligent manners during vehicle-to-vehicle collisions, accidents. Smart Phone Ad hoc Networks (SPANs) leverage the existing hardware (primarily Bluetooth and Wi-Fi) in commercially available smart phones to create peer-to-peer networks without relying on cellular carrier networks, wireless access points, or traditional network infrastructure. SPANs differ from traditional hub and spoke networks, such as Wi-Fi Direct, in that they support multi-hop relays and there is no notion of a group leader so peers can join and leave at will without destroying the network. Internet based mobile ad hoc networks (iMANETs) are ad hoc networks that link mobile nodes and fixed Internet-gateway nodes. For example, multiple sub-MANETs may be connected in a classic Hub-Spoke VPN to create a geographically distributed MANET. In such type of networks normal ad hoc routing algorithms don't apply directly. One implementation of this is Persistent System's CloudRelay. Military / Tactical MANETs are used by military units with emphasis on security, range, and integration with existing systems. Common waveforms include the US Army's SRW, Harris's ANW2 and HNW, Persistent Systems' Wave Relay, Trellisware's TSM and Silvus Technologies' StreamCaster. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an ad-hoc network but an ad-hoc network is not necessarily a MANET. §Simulations

There are several ways to study MANETs. One solution is the use of simulation tools like OPNET, NetSim and NS2. §Data monitoring and mining

MANETS can be used for facilitating the collection of sensor data for data mining for a variety of applications such as air pollution monitoring and different types of architectures can be used for such applications. It should be noted that a key characteristic of such applications is that nearby sensor nodes monitoring an environmental feature typically register similar values. This kind of data redundancy due to the spatial correlation between sensor observations inspires the techniques for in-network data aggregation and mining. By measuring the spatial correlation between data sampled by different sensors, a wide class of specialized algorithms can be developed to develop more efficient spatial data mining algorithms as well as more efficient routing strategies. Also, researchers have developed performance models for MANET by applying queueing theory. §Security

A lot of research has been done in the past but the most significant contributions have been the PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) and trust based security. None of the protocols have made a decent trade off between security and performance. In an attempt to enhance security in MANETs many researchers have suggested and implemented new improvements to the protocols and some of them have suggested new protocols.

Since any node may communicate with any other, many, and/or all nodes asymmetrical encryption (aka 1:1 tunneling) cannot work in a MANET. Rather, symmetrical encryption (where all nodes share the same en/decryption key) is far more efficient. The security challenge therefore becomes 1) enforcing hardware-to-logical presentation of identity and 2) preventing exfiltration of keys. §See also AmbientTalk, an experimental programming language for MANETs List of ad hoc routing protocols Delay-tolerant networking Wireless community network Wireless mesh network Backpressure Routing Data Mining Wireless Sensor Networks §
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